Software testing ensures that the actual software product matches the anticipated requirements and is not defective. Globally it is reported that 23% of the IT budget was allocated for Testing and quality assurance. Because software testing is a critical part of the SDLC to bring out the best product to the market.
The purpose of software testing is to locate or inspect the errors, gaps, and other missing requirements that fulfill the software product’s purpose. The responsibility, safety, and efficiency of the product depend a lot on proper software testing. Hence let us discuss, in a nutshell, the various classifications of software testing methods.
Types of Software Testing
It is to be noted that there are more than 150 varieties of software testing types at present. But, remember all testing types do not apply to all projects as they may vary according to the product’s nature to be tested. So, in general, we can classify the software testing into three categories.
- Functional Testing
- Non Functional / Performance Testing.
- Regression & Maintenance testing.
Now, let’s have a look at the details.
In this category of Testing, the system is tested on the functional requirements and the products’ specifications. Instead of the source code of the application, the functional Testing is more or less concerned about processing. This includes the review of user interfaces, database, client or server application, the application functionality, etc.
Functional Testing can be manual or automated.
Manual Testing Vs Automated Testing
Manual Testing is usually performed to discover the bugs in software under development by a QA Analyst manually. The efficiency of such Testing generally depends a lot on the skills and experience of the tester. It is time-consuming as well as it includes a number of random Testing.
Automated Testing, on the other hand, is based on the written code or test scripts. It owes a lot to the pre-scripted test of functioning and compares the actual test result with the expected outcome.
Both have their pros and cons. Hence choosing the right one is always a critical factor in determining the outcome of the test.
Functional Testing Process
It involves the following steps,
- a) Identifying the test input.
- b) Computing the expected outcomes based on the specifications.
- c) Executing the test cases based on the text input and output.
- d) Comparing and contrasting the actual and expected results or outcomes.
Read Here: Top 5 Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Methodologies
Major Functional Testing Techniques
- User Acceptance Testing (UAT) – this is done by the end-user to check the software system prior to moving the software application to the production environment.
- Smoke Testing – the main purpose of this test is to reject a software application with defects. Exhaustive Testing is not the objective here. The fine working of the critical functionalities is the point of Testing.
- Unit Testing – done to validate the expected performance of each unit of the software. The Testing here is done on the individual units or components of the software.
- Integration Testing – the software modules are tested as a group in this type. The real purpose is to expose the defects in the interaction between software modules.
- System Testing – it is a series of a wide variety of tests. It is done to validate the complete integrated software application.
- Usability Testing – it is done to determine if the system is easily usable for an end-user. The test is often performed on prototypes rather than finished products.
- Regression Testing – It is done to confirm that a recent code is changing or program changing has not hindered the product’s existing features. The working of the existing code, along with the latest code changes, is ensured through this method of Testing.
Unlike functional testing, which deals with the functional requirements and specifications, the Performance Testing is used to check the speed, response time, stability, and resource usage of the product under a particular workload. It is also known as “Perf Testing”.
It analyzes the quality and capability of the software application under their expected workload.
Performance testing is very critical as applications released to market with poor performance metrics are likely to draw conspicuous reputation and fail to meet expected sales target.
Performance Testing Process
The following are the various performance testing process.
- Identifying the test environment.
- Determination of the performance criteria.
- Planning and designing the test.
- Configuring the test environment.
- Implementing test design
- Run test
- Analyzing, tuning, and retesting
Types of Performance Testing
- Load Testing
- Stress Testing
- Endurance Testing
- Spike Testing
- Volume Testing
- Scalability Testing
Common Performance Problems
The common performance-related problems found are listed below.
- Extensive loading time
- Poor response time
- Poor scalability
It is evident that in most of the problems cited above, speed is a common factor as it is often one of the significant attributes of an efficient application.
The maintenance testing is done on the deployed software when there is a need for enhancement or migrations to other hardware. The Testing done during this cycle is commonly labeled as maintenance testing. Timely maintenance is very crucial in order to avoid system breakdown. It is mandatory to run maintenance testing if the customer or user wants to migrate the application to an upgraded hardware platform or change the operating system or database version.
Usually, maintenance testing consists of two types.
It is the Testing of the changes that have been made due to the correction or up-gradation of the system.
This often called a regression test, executed to ensure that the rest of the system has not been affected by the maintenance carried out.
Bottom note about Testing
To conclude, first of all, it is essential to understand the need for software testing as an integral part of creating and operating products in an error freeway. The satisfaction of end-users plays a vital role in enhancing a foolproof testing environment. A superior testing mechanism’s vigilance is required to check if someone can easily compromise data or get access to a resource that is not supposed to.
Understanding coding and reviewing them from time to time again is a gateway to hassle-free software applications. By doing so, you are improving the quality of the product you are testing and directly or indirectly enhancing the lifestyle of millions of people worldwide.